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Baixe arquivos PSD, vetores e gráficos de Saint Valentine Day gratuitos. [47][notes 2][48] Also, the dates do not fit because at the time of Gelasius I, the feast was only celebrated in Jerusalem, and it was on February 14 only because Jerusalem placed the Nativity of Jesus (Christmas) on January 6. In Beirut, men take women out to dine and may buy them a gift. Although these legends differ, Valentine's Day is widely recognized as a day for romance and devotion. [166] The holiday has only been observed since the 1960s.[165]. [101][103] Shiv Sena and the Sangh Parivar have asked their followers to shun the holiday and the "public admission of love" because of them being "alien to Indian culture". On 27 December 1835 the Very Reverend Father John Spratt, Master of Sacred Theology to the Carmelite order in Dublin, was sent the partial remains of St Valentine by Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi, under the auspices of Pope Gregory XVI. [93], Colombia celebrates Día del amor y la amistad on the third Saturday in September instead. St. Valentine's Day, as we know it today, contains vestiges of both Christian and ancient Roman tradition. Chaucer most probably predated all of them; but due to the difficulty of dating medieval works, it is not possible to ascertain which of the four may have influenced the others. [70] Valentine's Day is considered by some to be a Hallmark holiday due to its commercialization. [37] Probably due to the association with Saint Valentine, amethyst has become the birthstone of February, which is thought to attract love.[41]. [55], The earliest description of February 14 as an annual celebration of love appears in the Charter of the Court of Love. Temas Novidades. [101][103] The celebration has caused a sharp change on how people have been displaying their affection in public since the Middle Ages. The Lyrick Lark, and the graue whispering Doue, On April 14 (Black Day), those who did not receive anything on February or March 14 go to a Chinese-Korean restaurant to eat black noodles (짜장면 jajangmyeon) and lament their 'single life'. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards. Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. Saint Valentine, the name of one or two legendary Christian martyrs whose lives seem to be historically based. The St. Valentine's Day Massacre, poster, 1967. The Husband Cock lookes out and soone is spedd This custom was combated by priests, for example by Frances de Sales around 1600, apparently by replacing it with a religious custom of girls drawing the names of apostles from the altar. Under the circumstances, Emperor Claudius was a detail meant to enhance verisimilitude. His body was hastily buried at a nearby cemetery and a few nights later his disciples retrieved his body and returned him home. [128], Saint Valentine is the patron saint for a large part of the Lebanese population. Valentinus, praying to God, laid his hands on her eyes and the child's vision was restored. On the Julian calendar in use in Chaucer's time, February 14 would have fallen on the date now called February 23, a time when some birds have started mating and nesting in England. In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers, called "The Night of Sevens" (Chinese: 七夕; pinyin: Qi Xi). [126], In Taiwan, traditional Qixi Festival, Valentine's Day and White Day are all celebrated. Pope Gelasius declared February 14 St. Valentine’s Day around 498 A.D. In modern Israeli culture Tu B'Av is a popular day to proclaim love, propose marriage, and give gifts like cards or flowers. [79] Boxes of filled chocolates quickly became associated with the holiday. [73][74] A writer in Graham's American Monthly observed in 1849, "Saint Valentine's Day ... is becoming, nay it has become, a national holyday. [123][124], The custom that only women give chocolates to men may have originated from the translation error of a chocolate-company executive during the initial campaigns. The verse "Roses are red" echoes conventions traceable as far back as Edmund Spenser's epic The Faerie Queene (1590): "She bath'd with roses red, and violets blew, Unlike western countries, gifts such as greeting cards,[125] candies, flowers, or dinner dates[126] are uncommon, and most of the gifts-related activity is about giving the right amount of chocolate to each person. In 1958, the Isetan department store ran a "Valentine sale". Celebrated on February 14, Valentine is venerated as the patron saint of lovers, epileptics, and beekeepers. [28], There are many churches dedicated to Saint Valentine in countries such as Italy. [64] In 1835, 60,000 Valentine cards were sent by post in the United Kingdom, despite postage being expensive. Valentine's martyrdom has not gone unnoticed by the general public. [126], In the UK, just under half of the population spend money on their Valentines and around £1.3 billion is spent yearly on cards, flowers, chocolates, and other gifts, with an estimated 25 million cards being sent.[152]. 60–61. Johannes Baptista de Rossi et Ludovicus Duchesne, ed., (1894). February 14 is Saint Valentine's Day in the Lutheran calendar of saints. The date '11/11' is intended to resemble the long shape of the cookie. [3][4] According to an early tradition, Saint Valentine restored sight to the blind daughter of his jailer. Another proverb says "Valentin – prvi spomladin" ("Valentine – the first spring saint"), as in some places (especially White Carniola), Saint Valentine marks the beginning of spring. David James Harkness, Legends and Lore: Southerns Indians Flowers Holidays, vol. [36] The Roman Emperor Claudius II supposedly forbade this in order to grow his army, believing that married men did not make for good soldiers. Printers had already begun producing a limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called "mechanical valentines." The relics of Saint Valentine were kept in the Church and Catacombs of San Valentino in Rome, which "remained an important pilgrim site throughout the Middle Ages until the relics of St. Valentine were transferred to the church of Santa Prassede during the pontificate of Nicholas IV". [95], In the United States, about 190 million Valentine's Day cards are sent each year, not including the hundreds of millions of cards school children exchange. Kellogg, Alfred (1972). The speculative derivation of sentimental customs from the distant past began with 18th-century antiquaries, notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler's Lives of Saints, and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. Alleged relics of St. Valentine also lie at the reliquary of Roquemaure, Gard, France, in the St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, in Balzan in Malta and also in Blessed John Duns Scotus' church in the Gorbals area of Glasgow, Scotland. [10][11] Members of the Greek Orthodox Church named Valentinos (male) or Valentina (female) may observe their name day on the Western ecclesiastical calendar date of February 14. Traduções em contexto de "saint valentine's day" en inglês-português da Reverso Context : 1929 - Saint Valentine's Day Massacre: Seven people, six of them gangster rivals of … m. Romae) and Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. [161], In recent years, Romania has also started celebrating Valentine's Day. For other uses, see, "St. Valentine's Day" redirects here. Couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards, and flower bouquets. ", Readers have uncritically assumed that Chaucer was referring to February 14 as Valentine's Day. Denoted as a Catholic Christian’s feast day in some Western countries, it is the holiday which recognises the religious, cultural and commercial significance of love and romance in many regions globally. Autores Top. [29][27], A later Passio repeated the legend, adding that Pope Julius I built a church over his sepulchre (it is a confusion with a 4th-century tribune called Valentino who donated land to build a church at a time when Julius was a Pope). Many films have been produced depicting various aspects of Valentine's Day, including A Charlie Brown Valentine (2002). A popularly ascribed hagiographical identity appears in the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493). The Sparrow that neglects his life for loue, The jailer's daughter and his forty-six member household (family members and servants) came to believe in Jesus and were baptized. [164], In Denmark and Norway, February 14 is known as Valentinsdag, and it is celebrated in much the same manner as in the United Kingdom. The village gets dressed in its 19th-century costume and put on the program with over 800 people. The lot was cast and then I drew, And Fortune said it shou'd be you. [69], In the United States, the first mass-produced Valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after 1847 by Esther Howland (1828–1904) of Worcester, Massachusetts. [46] The remains, which include "a small vessel tinged with his blood", were sent as a token of esteem following an eloquent sermon Fr Spratt had delivered in Rome. The same events are also found in Bede's Martyrology, which was compiled in the 8th century. [9] The Church of England had him in its pre-Reformation calendars, and restored his mention as bishop and martyr in its 1661–62 Book of Common Prayer, and most provinces of the Anglican Communion celebrate his feast. Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine,[1] is celebrated annually on February 14. In Guatemala it is known as the "Día del Cariño" (Affection Day). Jack B. Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Ansgar, 1986, Chapter 5, Grandson, Pardo and Gower, pp. It originated in the 1797 edition of. [138], In 2017, the Islamabad High Court banned Valentine's Day celebrations in public places in Pakistan. [18], Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna (now Terni, in central Italy) and is said to have been martyred during the persecution under Emperor Aurelian in 273. The popular customs associated with Saint Valentine's Day undoubtedly had their origin in a conventional belief generally received in England and France during the Middle Ages, that on 14 February, i.e. Obtenha fotos jornalísticas preminum de alta resolução em Getty Images [81], In the modern era, liturgically, the Anglican Church has a service for St. Valentine's Day (the Feast of St. Valentine), which includes the optional rite of the renewal of marriage vows. A common hagiography describes Saint Valentine as a priest of Rome or as the former Bishop of Terni, an important town of Umbria, in central Italy. Ansgar says "It is hardly credible, then, that Pope Gelasius could have introduced the feast of the Purification to counteract the Lupercalia, and in fact the historical records of his pontificate give no hint of such an action.". The February 14 Valentine's Day is not celebrated at all because it usually falls too little before or too little after the Brazilian Carnival[92] – that can fall anywhere from early February to early March and lasts almost a week. [110] It may not be as well-known as Valentine's Day but St Dwynwen's Day is a special time for some in Wales. Traditionally, lovers exchanged hand written notes. [143][144] This ban has created a black market for roses and wrapping paper. The inconsistency in the identification of the saint is replicated in the various vitae that are ascribed to him. The flower-crowned alleged skull of St. Valentine is exhibited in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. Alongside a woodcut portrait of Valentine, the text states that he was a Roman priest martyred during the reign of Claudius Gothicus. Most notably, "the idea that Valentine's Day customs perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present". [38][39] The Roman Catholic Church includes him in its official list of saints, the Roman Martyrology. [125], Many women feel obliged to give chocolates to all male co-workers, except when the day falls on a Sunday, a holiday. [30], There are many other legends behind Saint Valentine. XL, No. For the Bing Crosby album, see. With Julia Roberts, Jamie Foxx, Anne Hathaway, Jessica Alba. [84], In most Latin American countries, for example, Costa Rica,[85] Mexico,[86] and Puerto Rico, Saint Valentine's Day is known as Día de los Enamorados (day of lovers)[87] or as Día del Amor y la Amistad (Day of Love and Friendship). But Saint Valentine’s feast day didn’t used to be a big to-do — which should please those who think too much is being made of it now. [4], The Feast of Saint Valentine was established by Pope Gelasius I in AD 496 to be celebrated on February 14 in honour of Saint Valentine of Rome, who died on that date in AD 269. Enviar uma fonte Ferramentas . Valentine's Day is celebrated in many East Asian countries with Singaporeans, Chinese and South Koreans spending the most money on Valentine's gifts. [33], A 5th- or 6th-century work called Passio Marii et Marthae made up a legend about Saint Valentine's Basilica being dedicated to Saint Valentine in Rome. [96], Valentine's Day is a major source of economic activity, with total expenditures in 2017 topping $18.2 billion in 2017, or over $136 per person. Romae). Henry Ansgar Kelly has observed that Chaucer might have had in mind the feast day of St. Valentine of Genoa, an early bishop of Genoa who died around AD 307; it was probably celebrated on 3 May. During the Middle Ages, it was believed that birds paired in mid-February. "Lovers' Day", or "Boyfriends'/Girlfriends' Day") is celebrated on June 12, probably because that is the day before Saint Anthony's day, known there as the marriage saint,[91] when traditionally many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to find a good husband or boyfriend. [101] This repression of public affections began to loosen in the 1990s. If Valentinus succeeded in restoring the girl's sight, Asterius would do whatever he asked. Right wing Hindu nationalists are also hostile. "[76] Since 2001, the Greeting Card Association has been giving an annual "Esther Howland Award for a Greeting Card Visionary". em Festas > Namorados It is also said that birds propose to each other or marry on that day. In order to counter the perceived denaturation of national culture, Dragobete, a spring festival celebrated in parts of Southern Romania, has been rekindled after having been ignored during the Communist years as the traditional Romanian holiday for lovers. One is that in the 3rd century AD[citation needed] it is said that Valentine, who was a priest, defied the order of the emperor Claudius and secretly performed Christian weddings for couples, allowing the husbands involved to escape conscription into the pagan army. [131], In East Malaysia, the celebration are much more tolerated among young Muslim couples although some Islamic officials and Muslim activists from the West side have told younger generations to refrain from such celebration by organising da'wah and tried to spread their ban into the East. In Sidon, Valentine's Day is celebrated with the whole family – it is more about family love than a couple's love. It began: On St. Valentine’s day… Thou art my love and I am thine; Though the extant accounts of the martyrdoms of the first two listed saints are of a late date and contain legendary elements, a common nucleus of fact may underlie the two accounts and they may refer to a single person. A previous failed attempt to popularize this celebration had been done by a marshmallow manufacturer who wanted men to return marshmallows to women. In the later 20th and early 21st centuries, these customs spread to other countries, like those of Hallowe'en, or than aspects of Christmas, (such as Santa Claus). [9] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, he is recognized on July 6; in addition, the Eastern Orthodox Church observes the feast of Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, on July 30. Valentine's Day, or St Valentine's Day, is celebrated every year on 14 February. And that’s the story of St. Valentine. 131–138, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Charles Panati (1987). Voices of the Martyrs. [12] However, in the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feast day of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national) calendars for the following reason: "Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14."[22]. Matilda Webb, The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome, 2001, Sussex Academic Press. [36] The Feast of Saint Valentine, also known as Saint Valentine's Day, was established by Pope Gelasius I in AD 496 to be celebrated on February 14 in honour of the Christian martyr.[37]. [27], Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls refers to a supposedly established tradition, but there is no record of such a tradition before Chaucer. "Chaucer's St. Valentine: A Conjecture." Ansgar, 1976, pp. [144][145] In 2012, the religious police arrested more than 140 Muslims for celebrating the holiday, and confiscated all red roses from flower shops. [31] The account mentions that in order "to remind these men of their vows and God’s love, Saint Valentine is said to have cut hearts from parchment", giving them to these persecuted Christians, a possible origin of the widespread use of hearts on St. Valentine's Day. It is usually marked by a steep increase in the price of flowers, particularly red roses. Saint Valentine's Day. [70][71] Her father operated a large book and stationery store, but Howland took her inspiration from an English Valentine she had received from a business associate of her father. [101] This tradition was lost around the Middle Ages, when Kamadeva was no longer celebrated, and public displays of sexual affection became frowned upon. It was spread due to the programs in commercial TV channels, such as MTV, dedicated radio programs, and love letter competitions, in addition to an economical liberalization that allowed the explosion of the valentine card industry. Bridge Logos Foundation. [66] The Laura Seddon Greeting Card Collection at Manchester Metropolitan University gathers 450 Valentine's Day cards dating from early nineteenth century Britain, printed by the major publishers of the day. Because of this, he was executed. [3] He was martyred and his body buried at a Christian cemetery on the Via Flaminia close to the Ponte Milvio to the north of Rome, on February 14, which has been observed as the Feast of Saint Valentine (Saint Valentine's Day) since 496 AD. [97] This is an increase from $108 per person in 2010. People give presents on Valentine’s Day to the person they love. The history of Valentine's Day - and its patron saint - is shrouded in mystery. His commemoration was still in the 1962 Roman Missal and is thus observed also by those who, in the circumstances indicated in Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, use that edition. However, this religious custom is recorded as soon as the 13th century in the life of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, so it could have a different origin.[21]. The relics and the accompanying letter from Cardinal Odescalchi have remained in the church ever since. The origins of Valentine's Day are not clear but many sources believe that it stems from the story of St Valentine, a Roman priest who was martyred on or around February 14 in the year 270 CE. [7][8] The day became associated with romantic love in the 14th and 15th centuries when notions of courtly love flourished, apparently by association with the "lovebirds" of early spring. [15] Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome who was martyred in 269 and was added to the calendar of saints by Pope Gelasius I in 496 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. [12] The Roman Catholic Church continues to recognize him as a saint, listing him as such in the February 14 entry in the Roman Martyrology,[13] and authorizing liturgical veneration of him on February 14 in any place where that day is not devoted to some other obligatory celebration, in accordance with the rule that on such a day the Mass may be that of any saint listed in the Martyrology for that day. [5], Another relic was found in 2003 in Prague in Church of St Peter and Paul at Vyšehrad. [39], Saint Valentine supposedly wore a purple amethyst ring, customarily worn on the hands of Christian bishops with an image of Cupid engraved in it, a recognizable symbol associated with love that was legal under the Roman Empire;[37][40] Roman soldiers would recognize the ring and ask him to perform marriage for them. Saint Valentine was a clergyman – either a priest or a bishop – in the Roman Empire who ministered to persecuted Christians. Thou marryest every yeare [48] There lies a book in which foreigners and locals have written their prayer requests for love. Ansgar, 1986, p. 59. [citation needed], Lebanese people celebrate Valentine's Day in a different way in every city. Men give gifts to women on Valentine's Day, and women return them on White Day. Acredita-se que existiram dois santos de nome Valentim, sendo que o primeiro foi um Bispo chamado Valentim, que lutou contra uma lei do imperador romano Claudio II, que havia proibido o casamento em momentos de batalha, e revoltado passou a celebrar casamentos escondidos por discordar da decisão. half way through the second month of the year, the birds began to pair. [11] In addition, the feast day of Saint Valentine is also given in the calendar of saints of the Lutheran Church. 122. Ma tres doulce Valentinée...", At the time, the duke was being held in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415. This page was last edited on 26 January 2021, at 13:03. On February 14, more than any other day of the year, romantic couples shower their better half with gifts and tokens of appreciation. [108][109] Other relics are found at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland. [88], In Brazil, the Dia dos Namorados (lit. [115][116], In 2016, local media reported that police had informed coffee shops and ice cream parlours in Tehran that they would be guilty of committing a crime if they encouraged "decadent Western culture through Valentine's Day rituals". [12] Many parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church also celebrate Saint Valentine's Day on July 6 in honor of Roman presbyter Saint Valentine, and on July 30 in honor of Hieromartyr Valentine, the Bishop of Interamna (modern Terni). Jacobus makes a play with the etymology of "Valentine", "as containing valor". Although he was leaving treats, many children were scared of this mystical person. Bertie told me another piece of interesting information about the history for St. Valentine’s day. Around that time, Jerusalem adopted the Nativity date of December 25 and moved the Purification to February 2. [14] The Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Rome (Valentinus presb. Schoepflin, Maurizio and Seren, Linda ()2000). During the Middle Ages, the practice of love lotteries carried on as 'Chance Boxes'. [158] [125] Japanese chocolate companies make half their annual sales during this time of the year. It is celebrated on the 15th day of the month of Av (usually in late August). [72][73] Intrigued with the idea of making similar Valentines, Howland began her business by importing paper lace and floral decorations from England. [9] In Italy, Saint Valentine's Keys are given to lovers "as a romantic symbol and an invitation to unlock the giver's heart", as well as to children to ward off epilepsy (called Saint Valentine's Malady). [71], Since the 19th century, handwritten notes have given way to mass-produced greeting cards. It originated as a Western Christian feast day honoring one or two early Christian martyrs named Saint Valentine and is recognized as a significant cultural, religious, and commercial celebration of romance and love in many regions of the world. [84], In South Korea, women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14 (White Day). Valentinus refused and Claudius' command was executed outside the Flaminian Gate February 14, 269. Paper Valentines became so popular in England in the early 19th century that they were assembled in factories. [139], In the Philippines, Valentine's Day is called Araw ng mga Puso in much the same manner as in the West. "true feeling chocolate"), chocolate given to a loved one. While the custom of sending cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts originated in the UK, Valentine's Day still remains connected with various regional customs in England. Saint Valentine's Day. Some new generation budding poets like Ramin Mazhar, Mahtab Sahel are expressing themselves through poetry using Valentine's Day expressing concerns on any likelihood of erosion of freedoms. What's On Valentine’s Day 2021: when is it, where it comes from, who was St Valentine – and why do we celebrate it? Professor Jack B. Oruch of the University of Kansas notes that "abstracts of the acts of the two saints were in nearly every church and monastery of Europe. This famous saint, an Italian doctor who later became a … Jack Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Jack Oruch identified the inception of this possible connection in Butler's, persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Saint Fructus, 8th-century Spanish martyr, "Saint Valentine: Patron of sex and epilepsy", "Irish priests keep a candle for Saint Valentine", When Father John Spratt, an Irish Carmelite returned to his parish in Dublin from preaching in a Jesuit church in Gesu, Italy, he brought the sacred relics of Saint Valentine, given to him by Pope Gregory XVI, Coptic Orthodox Church – From Where Valentine's Day Comes From, "Saint Valentine: Patron of lovers and epilepsy", "Greek name days of the year 2015 – month of celebration : February", "Love-seekers show up at St. Valentine's resting place in Dublin", "Radio Praha – Ostatky sv.Valentýna jsou uloženy na pražském Vyšehradě", "Chełmno – miasto zabytków i zakochanych", "The Holy Relics of St. Valentine Lie on Lesbos Island", "Savona: Guida ed Informazioni per visitare Savona", St Valentine of Terni – English translation of his "Passio" (BHL 8460), St Valentine of Rome – English translation of his "Passio" (BHL 8465), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saint_Valentine&oldid=1002879532, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, February 14 (Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran Churches), July 6 and July 30 (Eastern Orthodox). , 269 the book of saints, the birds began to pair Alla. 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