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[17], After the Treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France. [41] When visiting Halle after the battle, and commenting on the degree of difficulty of storming a fortified position accessible only by a single bridge, Napoleon enigmatically commented "Bernadotte stops at nothing. Charles was the 872nd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain. [22] During the invasion of Friuli and Istria, Bernadotte distinguished himself greatly at the passage of the Tagliamento where he led the vanguard, and at the capture of the fortress of Gradisca (19 March 1797). [33] The problem of Charles's successor had been acute almost from the time he had ascended the throne a year earlier. However, Eugène, serving as viceroy in Italy, did not wish to convert to Lutheranism, a prerequisite for accepting the Swedish offer. [4][17], After returning from Vienna, he resided in Paris. However, Eugène, serving as viceroy in Italy, did not wish to convert to Lutheranism, a prerequisite for accepting the Swedish offer. As Colonel and commander of the 71st Demi-Brigade, Bernadotte rallied his men, who were retreating in disorder before an Austrian attack, by tearing off his epaulettes, throwing them to the ground before his men and shouting “If you dishonor yourselves by flight, I refuse to remain your colonel!” Soldiers left the ranks, gathered his epaulettes, pressed them into his hands, formed ranks and reformed the line and counter-attacked. However, the birth of the King of Rome put an end to Napoleon's need for an heir. Moreover, Bernadotte fought with exceptional personal courage, at the head of his troops, and narrowly averted death when attacked by Austrian cavalry. Charles XIV John appears in 1 issues View all The Story of Sex: A Graphic History Through the Ages. The routed Saxons retreated in disorder toward Raasdorf as Bernadotte attempted to rally his men, where he encountered Napoleon. [81], Before freeing Bernadotte from his allegiance to France, Napoleon asked him to agree never to take up arms against France. [80] The invasion was a clear violation of international law as well as an act of war so public opinion in Sweden was understandably outraged. [33] The problem of Charles's successor had been acute almost from the time he had ascended the throne a year earlier. [33], Charles John, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin and was victorious in battle against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September at the Battles of Großbeeren and Dennewitz. For a time Napoleon considered the notion of placing Bernadotte on the Spanish throne; going so far as to hint at it in a letter to him. [96] Thereafter, the Crown Prince declared the neutrality of Sweden and opened negotiations with the UK and Russia. Upon Charles's death on 5 February 1818, Charles John ascended the throne. 4-6. Bernadotte refused to make any such agreement, upon the ground that his obligations to Sweden would not allow it; Napoleon exclaimed "Go, and let our destinies be accomplished" and signed the act of emancipation unconditionally. Barton, D. Plunkett (1921) pp. Left unsupported by Ney's unexpected movement toward Königsberg, the Russians under Levin August von Bennigsen, passed over to the offensive and attempted to destroy Bernadotte's and Ney's isolated Corps. "[113], His remains were interred after a state funeral in Stockholm's Riddarholm Church. Invaluable is the world's largest marketplace for art, antiques, and collectibles. [97], In 1813, he allied Sweden with Napoleon's enemies, including the UK, Russia and Prussia, in the Sixth Coalition, hoping to secure Norway. [17] Due to the capture of a courier carrying the Emperor's latest orders, Bernadotte was not informed of a change of strategy to move East toward the rest of the French Army. [39][40], After the Battle of Jena, Bernadotte crushed the Prussian Reserve Army, all fresh troops fortified behind a marsh and the River Saale, under Duke Eugen of Württemberg at Halle (17 October 1806), though Imperial Headquarters did not much appreciate this victory. By far the most popular name for a Swedish king is Karl. "[113], His remains were interred after a state funeral in Stockholm's Riddarholm Church. This demand would mean a hard blow to the national economy and the Swedish population. Napoleon acknowledged Bernadotte's administrative ability and influence by naming him a Councillor of State in February 1800. However, Bernadotte maintained strict discipline amongst his troops and his good treatment of the Danes made him popular with the populace and Danish Royal Family. pp. King of Sweden and Norway (1818–1844). [14], At the Battle of Theiningen (1796), where the Austrians outnumbered the French three-to-one,[15] Bernadotte's rear-guard successfully repulsed numerous attacks while inflicting heavy losses on the enemy, preventing the Archduke Charles from cutting off the retreat of the French army over the Rhine after its defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Würzburg. Although solicited to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, he did not take part in the coup d'état of the 30th Prairial. [2] He assumed the name Charles John and became the de facto regent and head of state. For a subsequent prince, see, “I have beheld war near at hand, and I know all its evils: for it is not conquest which can console a country for the blood of her children, spilt on a foreign land. After the defeats at Lützen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (21 May 1813), it was the Swedish Crown Prince who put fresh fighting spirit into the Allies; and at the conference of Trachenberg he drew up the general plan for the campaign which began after the expiration of the Truce of Pläswitz. 198–99. [29][30], Bernadotte, with Davout's III Corps attached to his command, and the Bavarians, gained a victory over the Austrians driving them out of Munich on October 12th, taking some 3000 prisoners and 19 guns and installing Maximillian Joseph back onto his throne. [39][40], After the Battle of Jena, Bernadotte crushed the Prussian Reserve Army, all fresh troops fortified behind a marsh and the River Saale, under Duke Eugen of Württemberg at Halle (17 October 1806), though Imperial Headquarters did not much appreciate this victory. Count Mörner would later play a prominent role in the election of Bernadotte as Crown Prince of Sweden.[46][47]. Bernadotte's Army of the North would continue to guard Berlin and keep watch on Davout's forces in Hamburg while the Allies, in accordance with the plan conceived at Trachenberg, maneuvered toward Napoleon's army at Leipzig. Alm, Mikael; Johansson, Brittinger (Eds) (2008). 257–58, Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). As a consequence, Bernadotte's I Corps was too far away to take part in the Battle of Eylau (7 to 8 February 1807). Bernadotte (Jean-Baptiste-Jules) Prince de Ponte-Corvo, Marechal de France. [66], With Bernadotte having returned to Paris, the Walcheren Campaign (July 1809) caused the French ministry in the absence of the emperor to entrust him with the defense of Antwerp with both regular French and Dutch troops along with the National Guard. p. 374, Alm, Mikael; Johansson, Brittinger (Eds) (2008). Bernadotte was also tasked with assuring France's newest ally, the Elector of Bavaria, Maximillian Joseph, that the Austrians would be driven from his country. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty . Moreover, none of Napoleon's brothers were interested in going to Sweden and his nephews were too young, as the Swedes did not want the hazards of minority rule in the event King Charles died prematurely. [56] Due to this near fatal wound, Bernadotte was invalided to the rear and missed the remainder of the Polish Campaign. [101] Charles John could have named his terms to Norway, but in a key concession accepted the Norwegian constitution and its own political autonomy. [102] Ultimately the British and Austrians vetoed the idea, and the Allies agreed that if Napoleon were to be deposed, the only acceptable alternative was the restoration of the House of Bourbon. [79] Another factor which favored Bernadotte's election was his (presumed) close ties to French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte,[80] who had recently defeated Sweden in the Franco-Swedish War. The tattoo is finally revealed to read Vive la république ("Long live the Republic") and a Phrygian cap: a highly ironic image and text for the skin of a king. [73] The Swedish crown prince even unsuccessfully sought Napoleon's support to assist Sweden in conquering Norway. In pursuance of these orders, Bernadotte, separately from Davout, left Naumburg at dawn on the morning of the 14th for Dornburg and marched towards Apolda, which he reached by 16:00. Although the 19th century Bernadotte monarchs that would follow Charles XIV John's reign tried to defend the power and privileges they still had, the tide incrementally turned against "personal regal rule" (personlig kungamakt) with the growth of the liberals, social democrats, and the expansion of the franchise. King of Sweden and Norway (1818–44). pp. The keynote of his whole policy was the acquisition of Norway as a compensation for the loss of Finland and Bernadotte proved anything but a puppet of France. [55] The Russians resumed the offensive that summer and Bernadotte was attacked by, and defeated, a strong Prussian Corps at Spanden, preserving the French bridgehead over the Pasłęka, where he was nearly killed when a spent ball struck him in the neck. [70][71] Refusing to comply with the order, he was summoned to Vienna, and after an interview with Napoleon at Schönbrunn accepted the general government of the Roman states. As a consequence, Bernadotte's I Corps was too far away to take part in the Battle of Eylau (7 to 8 February 1807). In modern Norwegian lists of kings he is called Charles III John. [60] Ironically, Bernadotte did eventually wear a crown, not through the auspices of Napoleon, but as an enemy of France. In 1834, when the relationship between the two countries strained regarding the Near East Crisis, he sent memoranda to British and Russian governments and proclaimed neutrality in advance. 1763-1844. [12], By 1794 he was promoted to brigadier, attached to the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse. He was also the first Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, Italy. It was apparent almost as soon as Charles XIII was crowned that the Swedish branch of the House of Holstein-Gottorp would die with him. [86], The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign policy, entirely in his hands. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. [83][33], He also faced challenges in Norway. [92] The decisive reason was that Napoleon, before marching to Moscow, had to secure his rear and dared not trust a Swedish continental foothold behind him. 105–06, Hedvig Elisabet Charlotta, Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok. He was the King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his 1844 death. [76], Although the Swedish government, amazed at Mörner's effrontery, at once placed him under arrest on his return to Sweden, the candidature of Bernadotte gradually gained favour and on 21 August 1810[33] he was elected by the Riksdag of the Estates in Örebro to be the new crown prince,[33] and was subsequently made Generalissimus of the Swedish Armed Forces by the King. This was a trick; played upon him by Sieyès and Roger Ducos, the directors allied to Napoleon. (Unknown). He never learned to speak Swedish or Norwegian; however, this was a minor obstacle as French was widely spoken by the Swedish aristocracy. Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). "Sergeant, Marshal and King: Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, 1763-1844", This page was last edited on 27 January 2021, at 03:24. [89], Soon after Charles John's arrival in Sweden, Napoleon compelled him to accede to the Continental System and declare war against the United Kingdom; otherwise, Sweden would have to face the determination of France, Denmark and Russia. Alm, Mikael and Britt-Inger Johansson, eds. It is pointed out as the origin of Swedish neutrality. [4] After Jourdan's victory at Fleurus (26 June 1794), where he distinguished himself with a decisive attack and seizure of key terrain that led to the Austrian retreat, he then became a divisional general. [84], The new Crown Prince was very soon the most popular and most powerful man in Sweden and quickly impressed his adoptive father. Charles XIV John, King of Sweden and Norway, 1763-1844; Detailed View Bernadotte was born in Pau, France, as the son of Jean Henri Bernadotte (1711–1780), prosecutor at Pau, and his wife (married at Boeil, 20 February 1754) Jeanne de Saint-Jean (1728–1809), niece of the lay abbot of Sireix. [63] [28], On the introduction of the First French Empire, Bernadotte became one of the eighteen Marshals of the Empire, and from June 1804 to September 1805 served as governor of the recently occupied Hanover. Count Mörner would later play a prominent role in the election of Bernadotte as Crown Prince of Sweden.[46][47]. [33] The democratic process and forces steadily matured under the King's restrained executive power. Barton, sir Dunbar Plunket (1925). Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). As the union King, Charles XIV John in Sweden and Charles III John in Norway, who succeeded to that title on 5 February 1818 following the death of Charles XIII & II, he was initially popular in both countries. Bernadotte played a significant role in the French victory at Austerlitz, and was made Prince of Pontecorvo as a reward. [125][126][127] However, it is true that Bernadotte, for reasons of discretion publicly, proclaimed himself in 1797 "a Republican both by principle and conviction" who would “to the moment of my death, oppose all Royalists and enemies to the Directory". This time Bernadotte's depleted forces - he had only 6,000 infantry left - broke and fled (Bernadotte's Corps was not the only one to have broken that day, Masséna's troops were also routed by the attack). [101] Charles John could have named his terms to Norway, but in a key concession accepted the Norwegian constitution and its own political autonomy. Napoleon accepted after he had become aware of an order of the day issued by Bernadotte in which he gave the Saxons credit for their courage in terms inconsistent with the emperor's official bulletin. He was initially popular in both countries. At a critical moment he ordered Dupas forward to his support; the latter replied that he had orders from the emperor to remain where he was. On the second day of battle, 6 July 1809, IX Corps, having been mauled the night before, wherein Bernadotte struggled to rally his demoralized Saxons, was attacked by two Austrian corps, as part of Archduke Charles's effort to break the French line. [105] It made a sharp contrast with Sweden's previous hegemonic expansionism resulting in uninterrupted wars with neighboring countries for centuries, and he successfully kept his kingdoms in a state of peace from 1814 until his death. [17], During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte, with his army corps from Hanover formed into the I Corps, commanded the Left Wing of the Grand Army overseeing Marmont's II Corps and having the majority of the Bavarian Army attached to his command; some 65,000 men or 1/4th of the Army. Genealogy for H.M KONUNG Jean-Baptiste Jules Charles XIV-III John Bernadotte, king of Sweden (XIV) and Norway (III) (1763 - 1844) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. All products are produced on-demand and shipped worldwide within 2 - 3 business days. Charles XIV John, King of Sweden and Norway, 1763-1844. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. Charles XIV & III John, also known as Carl John, (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. And Master of all Swedish orders of chivalry upon his accession to the economy. Was, through marriage to Désirée Clary, brother-in-law to Joseph Bonaparte, and appointed. For art, antiques, and was inaugurated by Oscar I and brother-in-law was. Crowned King Charles XIV unwilling to accept Swedish control Bernadotte born Jan. 26, 1763, Bernadotte. This demand would mean a hard blow to the national economy and island... 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